As used in this chapter:
(a)"Parent" means a natural parent, an adopted parent, or legal guardian. If the parents are divorced or legally separated, only a parent having legal custody of the pupil may challenge the content of a record pursuant to Section 49070, offer a written response to a record pursuant to Section 49072, or consent to release records to others pursuant to Section 49075. Either parent may grant consent if both parents have notified, in writing, the school or school district that an agreement has been made. If a pupil has attained the age of 18 years or is attending an institution of postsecondary education, the permission or consent required of, and the rights accorded to, the parents or guardian of the pupil shall thereafter only be required of, and accorded to, the pupil.
(b)"Pupil record" means any item of information directly related to an identifiable pupil, other than directory information, which is maintained by a school district or required to be maintained by an employee in the performance of his or her duties whether recorded by handwriting, print, tapes, film, microfilm or other means.
"Pupil record" does not include informal notes related to a pupil compiled by a school officer or employee which remain in the sole possession of the maker and are not accessible or revealed to any other person except a substitute. For purposes of this subdivision, "substitute" means a person who performs the duties of the individual who made the notes on a temporary basis, and does not refer to a person who permanently succeeds the maker of the notes in his or her position.
(c)"Directory information" means one or more of the following items: pupil's name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, major field of study, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, weight and height of members of athletic teams, dates of attendance, degrees and awards received, and the most recent previous public or private school attended by the pupil.
(d)"School district" means any school district maintaining any of grades kindergarten through 12, any public school providing instruction in any of grades kindergarten through 12, the office of the county superintendent of schools, or any special school operated by the department.
(e)"Access" means a personal inspection and review of a record or an accurate copy of a record, or receipt of an accurate copy of a record, an oral description or communication of a record or an accurate copy of a record, and a request to release a copy of any record.
(f)"County placing agency" means the county social service department or county probation department.