N.Y. VAT. LAW § 1111 : NY Code - Section 1111: Traffic-control signal indications

Whenever  traffic  is
  controlled by traffic-control signals, other than lane direction control
  signal  indications  provided  in  section   eleven   hundred   sixteen,
  exhibiting   different   colored  lights,  or  colored  lighted  arrows,
  successively, one at a time or in combination, only  the  colors  green,
  yellow  and  red shall be used, and said lights shall indicate and apply
  to drivers of vehicles and to pedestrians as follows:
    (a) Green indications:
    1. Traffic, except pedestrians, facing a steady circular green  signal
  may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such
  place  prohibits  either such turn. Such traffic, including when turning
  right or left, shall yield the right of way to  other  traffic  lawfully
  within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal
  is exhibited.
    2. Traffic, except pedestrians, facing a steady green arrow signal may
  cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by
  such  arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications
  shown at the same time, except that a U-Turn  may  be  made  by  traffic
  facing  a left green arrow signal unless a sign prohibits such U-Turn or
  such U-Turn is in violation of any other provision of law. Such  traffic
  shall  yield  the  right  of  way  to  other traffic lawfully within the
  intersection or an adjacent cross  walk  at  the  time  such  signal  is
  exhibited.
    3.  Unless  otherwise  directed  by  a  pedestrian-control  signal  as
  provided in section eleven hundred twelve, pedestrians facing any steady
  green signal, except when the sole green signal is  a  turn  arrow,  may
  proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.
    (b) Yellow indications:
    1. Traffic, except pedestrians, facing a steady circular yellow signal
  may enter the intersection; however, said traffic is thereby warned that
  the  related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication
  will be exhibited immediately thereafter.
    2. Traffic, except pedestrians, facing a steady  yellow  arrow  signal
  may  cautiously  enter  the  intersection  only to complete the movement
  indicated by such arrow or make such other movement as is  permitted  by
  other  indications  shown  at  the  same  time; however, said traffic is
  thereby warned that the related green arrow movement is being terminated
  or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter.
    3.  Unless  otherwise  directed  by  a  pedestrian-control  signal  as
  provided in section eleven hundred twelve, pedestrians facing any steady
  yellow  signal  are  thereby  advised that there is insufficient time to
  cross the roadway before a red indication is  shown  and  no  pedestrian
  shall then start to cross the roadway.
    (d) Red indications:
    1.  Traffic,  except pedestrians, facing a steady circular red signal,
  unless to make such other movement as is permitted by other  indications
  shown at the same time, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if
  none,  then shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side of
  the intersection, or in the event there is no crosswalk,  at  the  point
  nearest  the  intersecting  roadway  where  the driver has a view of the
  approaching traffic on the  intersecting  roadway  before  entering  the
  intersection and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is
  shown except as provided in paragraph two of this subdivision.
    2. Except in a city having a population of one million or more, unless
  a sign is in place prohibiting such turn:
    a.  Traffic  facing  a steady circular red signal may cautiously enter
  the intersection to make a right turn  after  stopping  as  required  by
  paragraph  one of this subdivision, except that right turning traffic is

  not required to stop when a steady right green arrow signal is shown  at
  the  same time. Such traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians
  within a marked or unmarked crosswalk at the intersection and  to  other
  traffic lawfully using the intersection;
    b. Traffic, while on a one-way roadway, facing a steady red signal may
  cautiously  enter  the  intersection  to make a left turn onto a one-way
  roadway after stopping as required by paragraph one of this subdivision.
  Such traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a marked
  or unmarked crosswalk at the intersection and to other traffic  lawfully
  using the intersection.
    Notwithstanding  any  other  provision  of  law,  any  city  having  a
  population of one million or more, is hereby authorized and empowered to
  adopt a local law authorizing subparagraph a or b of this  paragraph  to
  be  applicable within such city. Upon the adoption of such local law the
  exception provided herein for a city having a population of one  million
  or more shall no longer be applicable within such city.
    c. On or after the effective date of this subparagraph, the sign which
  prohibits  such  turn  shall  be  prominently  displayed  from all newly
  installed traffic signals where possible.
    3. Traffic, except pedestrians, facing a steady red arrow  signal  may
  not  enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by such arrow
  and, unless entering the intersection to make such other movement as  is
  permitted  by  other indications shown at the same time, shall stop at a
  clearly marked stop line, but if none, then shall stop  before  entering
  the  crosswalk  on  the  near  side of the intersection, or in the event
  there is no crosswalk at the  point  nearest  the  intersecting  roadway
  where  the  driver  has  a  view  of  the  approaching  traffic  on  the
  intersecting roadway before entering the intersection and  shall  remain
  standing until an indication to proceed is shown.
    4.  Unless  otherwise  directed  by  a  pedestrian-control  signal  as
  provided in section eleven hundred twelve, pedestrians facing any steady
  red signal shall not enter the roadway.
    5. Notwithstanding the provision of paragraph two of this subdivision,
  no school bus, while transporting  pupils  for  any  purpose,  shall  be
  permitted to proceed when facing a steady red signal.
    (e)  Traffic  shall  obey signs requiring obedience to traffic-control
  signals at intersections other than those  at  which  such  signals  are
  located.  No  intersection  not  controlled  by  such signs prior to the
  effective date of this section shall hereafter be made subject  to  such
  method  of control and no ordinance, order, rule or regulation requiring
  such obedience shall hereafter be adopted.
    (f) In the event an official traffic-control  signal  is  erected  and
  maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this
  section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their
  nature  can  have  no  application. Any stop required shall be made at a
  sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made,
  but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at
  the signal.