N.Y. WKC. LAW § 52 : NY Code - Section 52: Effect of failure to secure compensation

1. (a) Failure to
  secure the payment of compensation for five or less employees  within  a
  twelve month period shall constitute a misdemeanor, and is punishable by
  a  fine  of  not  less  than  one  thousand  nor more than five thousand
  dollars.  Failure to secure the payment of compensation  for  more  than
  five  employees  within a twelve month period shall constitute a class E
  felony, and is punishable by a fine  of  not  less  than  five  thousand
  dollars  nor  more  than fifty thousand dollars in addition to any other
  penalties otherwise provided by law. It shall be an affirmative  defense
  to  any  criminal  prosecution under this section that the employer took
  reasonable steps to secure compensation.
    (b) Where any person has previously been convicted  of  a  failure  to
  secure the payment of compensation within the preceding five years, upon
  conviction  for  a subsequent violation such person shall be guilty of a
  class D felony, and fined not less than ten thousand nor more than fifty
  thousand dollars in addition to  any  other  penalties  including  fines
  otherwise provided by law.
    (c)  Where the employer is a corporation, the president, secretary and
  treasurer thereof shall be liable for failure to secure the  payment  of
  compensation  under  this section. It shall be an affirmative defense to
  any action against any officer of a corporation under this section  that
  the officer took reasonable steps to ensure that the corporation secured
  compensation,  that  proper internal procedures were in effect to do so,
  and that proper internal controls existed  to  monitor  compliance  with
  said procedures.
    (d)   If   at  any  time  an  employer  intentionally  and  materially
  understates  or  conceals  payroll,  or  intentionally  and   materially
  misrepresents  or  conceals  employee  duties  so  as  to  avoid  proper
  classification for calculation of premium paid to  secure  compensation,
  or  intentionally  and  materially misrepresents or conceals information
  pertinent to the calculation of premium  paid  to  secure  compensation,
  such  employer shall be deemed to have failed to secure compensation and
  shall be subject to the sanctions applicable to this section.
    (e) A stop-work order issued because an employer  is  deemed  to  have
  failed  to  secure compensation under section one hundred forty-one-a of
  this chapter shall have no effect upon an employer's or  carrier's  duty
  to  provide benefits under this chapter or upon any of the employer's or
  carrier's rights and defenses.
    2. All fines imposed under this chapter, except  as  herein  otherwise
  provided,  shall  be  paid  directly  and  immediately  by  the  officer
  collecting the same to the chairman, and shall be paid by him  into  the
  uninsured  employers'  fund  created  under section twenty-six-a of this
  chapter, provided, however, that all such fines collected by justices of
  towns and villages shall be paid to the state comptroller in  accordance
  with  the provisions of section twenty-seven of the town law and section
  4-410 of the village law respectively.
    3. In any prosecution hereunder the failure of the  employer  to  file
  with  the chairman, within ten days after demand, a statement subscribed
  by the employer and affirmed by him  as  true  under  the  penalties  of
  perjury  showing  specifically (a) the name of the stock company, mutual
  corporation or reciprocal insurer in which such employer is insured  and
  the  number  and  the  date  of  issuance  and  term  of  such policy of
  insurance, or (b) that the said employer is insured with the state  fund
  in  which case he shall give the number of such policy of insurance, the
  date of issuance and term thereof, or (c) that  the  said  employer  has
  been  authorized  to  do  business as a self-insurer pursuant to section
  fifty of this article, giving the date of said authorization, or  (d)  a
  legal  reason,  if  any,  why  said  employer  is not required to secure

  compensation, shall constitute prima facie evidence  that  the  employer
  has  failed  to secure compensation as herein required. The statement to
  be filed herein shall be subscribed by the employer or if  the  employer
  is  a  corporation by one of the officers herein named in which he shall
  state that he has read such statement subscribed by him  and  knows  the
  contents thereof and that same is true of his own knowledge.
    4.  If,  however,  there has been an accident and the board shall have
  made an award against the employer as a non-insured employer, the making
  of such  award,  except  in  a  case  where  the  employer  had  secured
  compensation  insurance  which was in effect at the time of the accident
  but the carrier later became insolvent,  shall  constitute  prima  facie
  evidence  of  an  employment  by  the  employer  of  an  employee  in an
  occupation in which the said employer was required to carry compensation
  and of the failure of the employer to secure  the  payment  of  workers'
  compensation  on  the  date  of  the  accident involved in said award. A
  certified copy of such award shall be received as competent evidence  of
  the making thereof in any criminal prosecution hereunder.
    5. The chair, upon finding that an employer has failed for a period of
  not  less than ten consecutive days to make the provision for payment of
  compensation required by section fifty of this article, may impose  upon
  such  employer, in addition to all other penalties, fines or assessments
  provided for in this chapter, a penalty of two thousand dollars for each
  ten day period of non-compliance or a sum not in excess of two times the
  cost of compensation for its payroll for the  period  of  such  failure,
  which sum shall be paid into the uninsured employers' fund created under
  section  twenty-six-a of this chapter. When an employer fails to provide
  business records  sufficient  to  enable  the  chair  to  determine  the
  employer's  payroll  for the period requested for the calculation of the
  penalty provided in this section, the imputed weekly  payroll  for  each
  employee,  corporate  officer,  sole proprietor, or partner shall be the
  New York state  average  weekly  wage,  multiplied  by  1.5.  Where  the
  employer  is  a  corporation,  the  president,  secretary  and treasurer
  thereof shall be liable for the penalty. If the  employer  shall  within
  thirty  days  after  notice  of the imposition of a penalty by the chair
  pursuant to this subdivision make an application in affidavit form for a
  redetermination review  of  such  penalty  the  chairman  shall  make  a
  decision in writing on the issues raised on such application.