A debt collector may not use any false, deceptive, or misleading
representation or means in connection with the collection of any
debt. Without limiting the general application of the foregoing,
the following conduct is a violation of this section:
(1) The false representation or implication that the debt
collector is vouched for, bonded by, or affiliated with the
United States or any State, including the use of any badge,
uniform, or facsimile thereof.
(2) The false representation of -
(A) the character, amount, or legal status of any debt; or
(B) any services rendered or compensation which may be
lawfully received by any debt collector for the collection of a
(3) The false representation or implication that any individual
is an attorney or that any communication is from an attorney.
(4) The representation or implication that nonpayment of any
debt will result in the arrest or imprisonment of any person or
the seizure, garnishment, attachment, or sale of any property or
wages of any person unless such action is lawful and the debt
collector or creditor intends to take such action.
(5) The threat to take any action that cannot legally be taken
or that is not intended to be taken.
(6) The false representation or implication that a sale,
referral, or other transfer of any interest in a debt shall cause
the consumer to -
(A) lose any claim or defense to payment of the debt; or
(B) become subject to any practice prohibited by this
(7) The false representation or implication that the consumer
committed any crime or other conduct in order to disgrace the
(8) Communicating or threatening to communicate to any person
credit information which is known or which should be known to be
false, including the failure to communicate that a disputed debt
(9) The use or distribution of any written communication which
simulates or is falsely represented to be a document authorized,
issued, or approved by any court, official, or agency of the
United States or any State, or which creates a false impression
as to its source, authorization, or approval.
(10) The use of any false representation or deceptive means to
collect or attempt to collect any debt or to obtain information
concerning a consumer.
(11) The failure to disclose in the initial written
communication with the consumer and, in addition, if the initial
communication with the consumer is oral, in that initial oral
communication, that the debt collector is attempting to collect a
debt and that any information obtained will be used for that
purpose, and the failure to disclose in subsequent communications
that the communication is from a debt collector, except that this
paragraph shall not apply to a formal pleading made in connection
with a legal action.
(12) The false representation or implication that accounts have
been turned over to innocent purchasers for value.
(13) The false representation or implication that documents are
(14) The use of any business, company, or organization name
other than the true name of the debt collector's business,
company, or organization.
(15) The false representation or implication that documents are
not legal process forms or do not require action by the consumer.
(16) The false representation or implication that a debt
collector operates or is employed by a consumer reporting agency
as defined by section 1681a(f) of this title.