17 U.S.C. § 108 : US Code - Section 108: Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduction by libraries and archives

      (a) Except as otherwise provided in this title and
    notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an
    infringement of copyright for a library or archives, or any of its
    employees acting within the scope of their employment, to reproduce
    no more than one copy or phonorecord of a work, except as provided
    in subsections (b) and (c), or to distribute such copy or
    phonorecord, under the conditions specified by this section, if - 
        (1) the reproduction or distribution is made without any
      purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage;
        (2) the collections of the library or archives are (i) open to
      the public, or (ii) available not only to researchers affiliated
      with the library or archives or with the institution of which it
      is a part, but also to other persons doing research in a
      specialized field; and
        (3) the reproduction or distribution of the work includes a
      notice of copyright that appears on the copy or phonorecord that
      is reproduced under the provisions of this section, or includes a
      legend stating that the work may be protected by copyright if no
      such notice can be found on the copy or phonorecord that is
      reproduced under the provisions of this section.

      (b) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
    section apply to three copies or phonorecords of an unpublished
    work duplicated solely for purposes of preservation and security or
    for deposit for research use in another library or archives of the
    type described by clause (2) of subsection (a), if - 
        (1) the copy or phonorecord reproduced is currently in the
      collections of the library or archives; and
        (2) any such copy or phonorecord that is reproduced in digital
      format is not otherwise distributed in that format and is not
      made available to the public in that format outside the premises
      of the library or archives.

      (c) The right of reproduction under this section applies to three
    copies or phonorecords of a published work duplicated solely for
    the purpose of replacement of a copy or phonorecord that is
    damaged, deteriorating, lost, or stolen, or if the existing format
    in which the work is stored has become obsolete, if - 
        (1) the library or archives has, after a reasonable effort,
      determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a
      fair price; and
        (2) any such copy or phonorecord that is reproduced in digital
      format is not made available to the public in that format outside
      the premises of the library or archives in lawful possession of
      such copy.

    For purposes of this subsection, a format shall be considered
    obsolete if the machine or device necessary to render perceptible a
    work stored in that format is no longer manufactured or is no
    longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.
      (d) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
    section apply to a copy, made from the collection of a library or
    archives where the user makes his or her request or from that of
    another library or archives, of no more than one article or other
    contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or to
    a copy or phonorecord of a small part of any other copyrighted
    work, if - 
        (1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user,
      and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or
      phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private
      study, scholarship, or research; and
        (2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place
      where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a
      warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the
      Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.

      (e) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
    section apply to the entire work, or to a substantial part of it,
    made from the collection of a library or archives where the user
    makes his or her request or from that of another library or
    archives, if the library or archives has first determined, on the
    basis of a reasonable investigation, that a copy or phonorecord of
    the copyrighted work cannot be obtained at a fair price, if - 
        (1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user,
      and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or
      phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private
      study, scholarship, or research; and
        (2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place
      where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a
      warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the
      Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.

      (f) Nothing in this section - 
        (1) shall be construed to impose liability for copyright
      infringement upon a library or archives or its employees for the
      unsupervised use of reproducing equipment located on its
      premises: Provided, That such equipment displays a notice that
      the making of a copy may be subject to the copyright law;
        (2) excuses a person who uses such reproducing equipment or who
      requests a copy or phonorecord under subsection (d) from
      liability for copyright infringement for any such act, or for any
      later use of such copy or phonorecord, if it exceeds fair use as
      provided by section 107;
        (3) shall be construed to limit the reproduction and
      distribution by lending of a limited number of copies and
      excerpts by a library or archives of an audiovisual news program,
      subject to clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a); or
        (4) in any way affects the right of fair use as provided by
      section 107, or any contractual obligations assumed at any time
      by the library or archives when it obtained a copy or phonorecord
      of a work in its collections.

      (g) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
    section extend to the isolated and unrelated reproduction or
    distribution of a single copy or phonorecord of the same material
    on separate occasions, but do not extend to cases where the library
    or archives, or its employee - 
        (1) is aware or has substantial reason to believe that it is
      engaging in the related or concerted reproduction or distribution
      of multiple copies or phonorecords of the same material, whether
      made on one occasion or over a period of time, and whether
      intended for aggregate use by one or more individuals or for
      separate use by the individual members of a group; or
        (2) engages in the systematic reproduction or distribution of
      single or multiple copies or phonorecords of material described
      in subsection (d): Provided, That nothing in this clause prevents
      a library or archives from participating in interlibrary
      arrangements that do not have, as their purpose or effect, that
      the library or archives receiving such copies or phonorecords for
      distribution does so in such aggregate quantities as to
      substitute for a subscription to or purchase of such work.

      (h)(1) For purposes of this section, during the last 20 years of
    any term of copyright of a published work, a library or archives,
    including a nonprofit educational institution that functions as
    such, may reproduce, distribute, display, or perform in facsimile
    or digital form a copy or phonorecord of such work, or portions
    thereof, for purposes of preservation, scholarship, or research, if
    such library or archives has first determined, on the basis of a
    reasonable investigation, that none of the conditions set forth in
    subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (2) apply.
      (2) No reproduction, distribution, display, or performance is
    authorized under this subsection if - 
        (A) the work is subject to normal commercial exploitation;
        (B) a copy or phonorecord of the work can be obtained at a
      reasonable price; or
        (C) the copyright owner or its agent provides notice pursuant
      to regulations promulgated by the Register of Copyrights that
      either of the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B)
      applies.

      (3) The exemption provided in this subsection does not apply to
    any subsequent uses by users other than such library or archives.
      (i) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
    section do not apply to a musical work, a pictorial, graphic or
    sculptural work, or a motion picture or other audiovisual work
    other than an audiovisual work dealing with news, except that no
    such limitation shall apply with respect to rights granted by
    subsections (b), (c), and (h), or with respect to pictorial or
    graphic works published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar
    adjuncts to works of which copies are reproduced or distributed in
    accordance with subsections (d) and (e).