(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), whoever knowingly
circumcises, excises, or infibulates the whole or any part of the
labia majora or labia minora or clitoris of another person who has
not attained the age of 18 years shall be fined under this title or
imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
(b) A surgical operation is not a violation of this section if
the operation is -
(1) necessary to the health of the person on whom it is
performed, and is performed by a person licensed in the place of
its performance as a medical practitioner; or
(2) performed on a person in labor or who has just given birth
and is performed for medical purposes connected with that labor
or birth by a person licensed in the place it is performed as a
medical practitioner, midwife, or person in training to become
such a practitioner or midwife.
(c) In applying subsection (b)(1), no account shall be taken of
the effect on the person on whom the operation is to be performed
of any belief on the part of that person, or any other person, that
the operation is required as a matter of custom or ritual.