The Chief Justice of the United States shall summon annually the
chief judge of each judicial circuit, the chief judge of the Court
of International Trade, and a district judge from each judicial
circuit to a conference at such time and place in the United States
as he may designate. He shall preside at such conference which
shall be known as the Judicial Conference of the United States.
Special sessions of the Conference may be called by the Chief
Justice at such times and places as he may designate.
The district judge to be summoned from each judicial circuit
shall be chosen by the circuit and district judges of the circuit
and shall serve as a member of the Judicial Conference of the
United States for a term of not less than 3 successive years nor
more than 5 successive years, as established by majority vote of
all circuit and district judges of the circuit. A district judge
serving as a member of the Judicial Conference may be either a
judge in regular active service or a judge retired from regular
active service under section 371(b) of this title.
If the chief judge of any circuit, the chief judge of the Court
of International Trade, or the district judge chosen by the judges
of the circuit is unable to attend, the Chief Justice may summon
any other circuit or district judge from such circuit or any other
judge of the Court of International Trade, as the case may be.
Every judge summoned shall attend and, unless excused by the Chief
Justice, shall remain throughout the sessions of the conference and
advise as to the needs of his circuit or court and as to any
matters in respect of which the administration of justice in the
courts of the United States may be improved.
The Conference shall make a comprehensive survey of the condition
of business in the courts of the United States and prepare plans
for assignment of judges to or from circuits or districts where
necessary. It shall also submit suggestions and recommendations to
the various courts to promote uniformity of management procedures
and the expeditious conduct of court business. The Conference is
authorized to exercise the authority provided in chapter 16 of this
title as the Conference, or through a standing committee. If the
Conference elects to establish a standing committee, it shall be
appointed by the Chief Justice and all petitions for review shall
be reviewed by that committee. The Conference or the standing
committee may hold hearings, take sworn testimony, issue subpoenas
and subpoenas duces tecum, and make necessary and appropriate
orders in the exercise of its authority. Subpoenas and subpoenas
duces tecum shall be issued by the clerk of the Supreme Court or by
the clerk of any court of appeals, at the direction of the Chief
Justice or his designee and under the seal of the court, and shall
be served in the manner provided in rule 45(c) of the Federal Rules
of Civil Procedure for subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum issued
on behalf of the United States or an officer or any agency thereof.
The Conference may also prescribe and modify rules for the exercise
of the authority provided in chapter 16 of this title. All judicial
officers and employees of the United States shall promptly carry
into effect all orders of the Judicial Conference or the standing
committee established pursuant to this section.
The Conference shall also carry on a continuous study of the
operation and effect of the general rules of practice and procedure
now or hereafter in use as prescribed by the Supreme Court for the
other courts of the United States pursuant to law. Such changes in
and additions to those rules as the Conference may deem desirable
to promote simplicity in procedure, fairness in administration, the
just determination of litigation, and the elimination of
unjustifiable expense and delay shall be recommended by the
Conference from time to time to the Supreme Court for its
consideration and adoption, modification or rejection, in
accordance with law.
The Judicial Conference shall review rules prescribed under
section 2071 of this title by the courts, other than the Supreme
Court and the district courts, for consistency with Federal law.
The Judicial Conference may modify or abrogate any such rule so
reviewed found inconsistent in the course of such a review.
The Attorney General shall, upon request of the Chief Justice,
report to such Conference on matters relating to the business of
the several courts of the United States, with particular reference
to cases to which the United States is a party.
The Chief Justice shall submit to Congress an annual report of
the proceedings of the Judicial Conference and its recommendations
The Judicial Conference shall consult with the Director of (!1)
United States Marshals Service on a continuing basis regarding the
security requirements for the judicial branch of the United States
Government, to ensure that the views of the Judicial Conference
regarding the security requirements for the judicial branch of the
Federal Government are taken into account when determining staffing
levels, setting priorities for programs regarding judicial
security, and allocating judicial security resources. In this
paragraph, the term "judicial security" includes the security of
buildings housing the judiciary, the personal security of judicial
officers, the assessment of threats made to judicial officers, and
the protection of all other judicial personnel. The United States
Marshals Service retains final authority regarding security
requirements for the judicial branch of the Federal Government.