Notes on 28 U.S.C. § 1331 : US Code - Notes

    (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 85-554, Sec. 1, July
    25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 94-574, Sec. 2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90
    Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 96-486, Sec. 2(a), Dec. 1, 1980, 94 Stat.
    2369.)



                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES                   
      Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911,
    ch. 231, Sec. 24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283,
    Sec. 1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, Sec. 1, 50 Stat. 738;
    Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).
      Jurisdiction of federal questions arising under other sections of
    this chapter is not dependent upon the amount in controversy. (See
    annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C.A., and 35
    C.J.S., p. 833 et seq., Secs. 30-43. See, also, reviser's note
    under section 1332 of this title.)
      Words "wherein the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value
    of $3,000, exclusive of interest and costs," were added to conform
    to rulings of the Supreme Court. See construction of provision
    relating to jurisdictional amount requirement in cases involving a
    Federal question in United States v. Sayward, 16 S.Ct. 371, 160
    U.S. 493, 40 L.Ed. 508; Fishback v. Western Union Tel. Co., 16
    S.Ct. 506, 161 U.S. 96, 40 L.Ed. 630; and Halt v. Indiana
    Manufacturing Co., 1900, 20 S.Ct. 272, 176 U.S. 68, 44 L.Ed. 374.
      Words "all civil actions" were substituted for "all suits of a
    civil nature, at common law or in equity" to conform with Rule 2 of
    the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
      Words "or treaties" were substituted for "or treaties made, or
    which shall be made under their authority," for purposes of
    brevity.
      The remaining provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C.,
    1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345,
    1354, and 1359 of this title.
      Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.

                                AMENDMENTS                            
      1980 - Pub. L. 96-486 struck out "; amount in controversy; costs"
    in section catchline, struck out minimum amount in controversy
    requirement of $10,000 for original jurisdiction in federal
    question cases which necessitated striking the exception to such
    required minimum amount that authorized original jurisdiction in
    actions brought against the United States, any agency thereof, or
    any officer or employee thereof in an official capacity, struck out
    provision authorizing the district court except where express
    provision therefore was made in a federal statute to deny costs to
    a plaintiff and in fact impose such costs upon such plaintiff where
    plaintiff was adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the
    required amount in controversy, computed without regard to set-off
    or counterclaim and exclusive of interests and costs, and struck
    out existing subsection designations.
      1976 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94-574 struck out $10,000
    jurisdictional amount where action is brought against the United
    States, any agency thereof, or any officer or employee thereof in
    his official capacity.
      1958 - Pub. L. 85-554 included costs in section catchline,
    designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted
    "$10,000" for "$3,000", and added subsec. (b).

              EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1980 AMENDMENT; APPLICABILITY          
      Section 4 of Pub. L. 96-486 provided: "This Act [amending this
    section and section 2072 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and
    enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1 of this
    title] shall apply to any civil action pending on the date of
    enactment of this Act [Dec. 1, 1980]."

                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1958 AMENDMENT                 
      Section 3 of Pub. L. 85-554 provided that: "This Act [amending
    this section and sections 1332 and 1345 of this title] shall apply
    only in the case of actions commenced after the date of the
    enactment of this Act [July 25, 1958]."