28 U.S.C. § 1605 : US Code - Section 1605: General exceptions to the jurisdictional immunity of a foreign state

      (a) A foreign state shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of
    courts of the United States or of the States in any case - 
        (1) in which the foreign state has waived its immunity either
      explicitly or by implication, notwithstanding any withdrawal of
      the waiver which the foreign state may purport to effect except
      in accordance with the terms of the waiver;
        (2) in which the action is based upon a commercial activity
      carried on in the United States by the foreign state; or upon an
      act performed in the United States in connection with a
      commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere; or upon an
      act outside the territory of the United States in connection with
      a commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere and that act
      causes a direct effect in the United States;
        (3) in which rights in property taken in violation of
      international law are in issue and that property or any property
      exchanged for such property is present in the United States in
      connection with a commercial activity carried on in the United
      States by the foreign state; or that property or any property
      exchanged for such property is owned or operated by an agency or
      instrumentality of the foreign state and that agency or
      instrumentality is engaged in a commercial activity in the United
      States;
        (4) in which rights in property in the United States acquired
      by succession or gift or rights in immovable property situated in
      the United States are in issue;
        (5) not otherwise encompassed in paragraph (2) above, in which
      money damages are sought against a foreign state for personal
      injury or death, or damage to or loss of property, occurring in
      the United States and caused by the tortious act or omission of
      that foreign state or of any official or employee of that foreign
      state while acting within the scope of his office or employment;
      except this paragraph shall not apply to - 
          (A) any claim based upon the exercise or performance or the
        failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function
        regardless of whether the discretion be abused, or
          (B) any claim arising out of malicious prosecution, abuse of
        process, libel, slander, misrepresentation, deceit, or
        interference with contract rights; or

        (6) in which the action is brought, either to enforce an
      agreement made by the foreign state with or for the benefit of a
      private party to submit to arbitration all or any differences
      which have arisen or which may arise between the parties with
      respect to a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or
      not, concerning a subject matter capable of settlement by
      arbitration under the laws of the United States, or to confirm an
      award made pursuant to such an agreement to arbitrate, if (A) the
      arbitration takes place or is intended to take place in the
      United States, (B) the agreement or award is or may be governed
      by a treaty or other international agreement in force for the
      United States calling for the recognition and enforcement of
      arbitral awards, (C) the underlying claim, save for the agreement
      to arbitrate, could have been brought in a United States court
      under this section or section 1607, or (D) paragraph (1) of this
      subsection is otherwise applicable.

      (b) A foreign state shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of
    the courts of the United States in any case in which a suit in
    admiralty is brought to enforce a maritime lien against a vessel or
    cargo of the foreign state, which maritime lien is based upon a
    commercial activity of the foreign state: Provided, That - 
        (1) notice of the suit is given by delivery of a copy of the
      summons and of the complaint to the person, or his agent, having
      possession of the vessel or cargo against which the maritime lien
      is asserted; and if the vessel or cargo is arrested pursuant to
      process obtained on behalf of the party bringing the suit, the
      service of process of arrest shall be deemed to constitute valid
      delivery of such notice, but the party bringing the suit shall be
      liable for any damages sustained by the foreign state as a result
      of the arrest if the party bringing the suit had actual or
      constructive knowledge that the vessel or cargo of a foreign
      state was involved; and
        (2) notice to the foreign state of the commencement of suit as
      provided in section 1608 of this title is initiated within ten
      days either of the delivery of notice as provided in paragraph
      (1) of this subsection or, in the case of a party who was unaware
      that the vessel or cargo of a foreign state was involved, of the
      date such party determined the existence of the foreign state's
      interest.

      (c) Whenever notice is delivered under subsection (b)(1), the
    suit to enforce a maritime lien shall thereafter proceed and shall
    be heard and determined according to the principles of law and
    rules of practice of suits in rem whenever it appears that, had the
    vessel been privately owned and possessed, a suit in rem might have
    been maintained. A decree against the foreign state may include
    costs of the suit and, if the decree is for a money judgment,
    interest as ordered by the court, except that the court may not
    award judgment against the foreign state in an amount greater than
    the value of the vessel or cargo upon which the maritime lien
    arose. Such value shall be determined as of the time notice is
    served under subsection (b)(1). Decrees shall be subject to appeal
    and revision as provided in other cases of admiralty and maritime
    jurisdiction. Nothing shall preclude the plaintiff in any proper
    case from seeking relief in personam in the same action brought to
    enforce a maritime lien as provided in this section.
      (d) A foreign state shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of
    the courts of the United States in any action brought to foreclose
    a preferred mortgage, as defined in section 31301 of title 46. Such
    action shall be brought, heard, and determined in accordance with
    the provisions of chapter 313 of title 46 and in accordance with
    the principles of law and rules of practice of suits in rem,
    whenever it appears that had the vessel been privately owned and
    possessed a suit in rem might have been maintained.
      [(e), (f) Repealed. Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec.
    1083(b)(1)(B), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 341.]
      (g) Limitation on Discovery. - 
        (1) In general. - (A) Subject to paragraph (2), if an action is
      filed that would otherwise be barred by section 1604, but for
      section 1605A, the court, upon request of the Attorney General,
      shall stay any request, demand, or order for discovery on the
      United States that the Attorney General certifies would
      significantly interfere with a criminal investigation or
      prosecution, or a national security operation, related to the
      incident that gave rise to the cause of action, until such time
      as the Attorney General advises the court that such request,
      demand, or order will no longer so interfere.
        (B) A stay under this paragraph shall be in effect during the
      12-month period beginning on the date on which the court issues
      the order to stay discovery. The court shall renew the order to
      stay discovery for additional 12-month periods upon motion by the
      United States if the Attorney General certifies that discovery
      would significantly interfere with a criminal investigation or
      prosecution, or a national security operation, related to the
      incident that gave rise to the cause of action.
        (2) Sunset. - (A) Subject to subparagraph (B), no stay shall be
      granted or continued in effect under paragraph (1) after the date
      that is 10 years after the date on which the incident that gave
      rise to the cause of action occurred.
        (B) After the period referred to in subparagraph (A), the
      court, upon request of the Attorney General, may stay any
      request, demand, or order for discovery on the United States that
      the court finds a substantial likelihood would - 
          (i) create a serious threat of death or serious bodily injury
        to any person;
          (ii) adversely affect the ability of the United States to
        work in cooperation with foreign and international law
        enforcement agencies in investigating violations of United
        States law; or
          (iii) obstruct the criminal case related to the incident that
        gave rise to the cause of action or undermine the potential for
        a conviction in such case.

        (3) Evaluation of evidence. - The court's evaluation of any
      request for a stay under this subsection filed by the Attorney
      General shall be conducted ex parte and in camera.
        (4) Bar on motions to dismiss. - A stay of discovery under this
      subsection shall constitute a bar to the granting of a motion to
      dismiss under rules 12(b)(6) and 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil
      Procedure.
        (5) Construction. - Nothing in this subsection shall prevent
      the United States from seeking protective orders or asserting
      privileges ordinarily available to the United States.