31 U.S.C. § 5342 : US Code - Section 5342: High-risk money laundering and related financial crime areas

Search 31 U.S.C. § 5342 : US Code - Section 5342: High-risk money laundering and related financial crime areas

      (a) Findings and Purpose. - 
        (1) Findings. - The Congress finds the following:
          (A) Money laundering and related financial crimes frequently
        appear to be concentrated in particular geographic areas,
        financial systems, industry sectors, or financial institutions.
          (B) While the Secretary has the responsibility to act with
        regard to Federal offenses which are being committed in a
        particular locality or are directed at a single institution,
        because modern financial systems and institutions are
        interconnected to a degree which was not possible until
        recently, money laundering and other related financial crimes
        are likely to have local, State, national, and international
        effects wherever they are committed.

        (2) Purpose and objective. - It is the purpose of this section
      to provide a mechanism for designating any area where money
      laundering or a related financial crime appears to be occurring
      at a higher than average rate such that - 
          (A) a comprehensive approach to the problem of such crime in
        such area can be developed, in cooperation with State and local
        law enforcement agencies, which utilizes the authority of the
        Secretary to prevent such activity; or
          (B) such area can be targeted for law enforcement action.

      (b) Element of National Strategy. - The designation of certain
    areas as areas in which money laundering and related financial
    crimes are extensive or present a substantial risk shall be an
    element of the national strategy developed pursuant to section
    5341(b).
      (c) Designation of Areas. - 
        (1) Designation by secretary. - The Secretary, after taking
      into consideration the factors specified in subsection (d), shall
      designate any geographical area, industry, sector, or institution
      in the United States in which money laundering and related
      financial crimes are extensive or present a substantial risk as a
      "high-risk money laundering and related financial crimes area".
        (2) Case-by-case determination in consultation with the
      attorney general. - In addition to the factors specified in
      subsection (d), any designation of any area under paragraph (1)
      shall be made on the basis of a determination by the Secretary,
      in consultation with the Attorney General, that the particular
      area, industry, sector, or institution is being victimized by, or
      is particularly vulnerable to, money laundering and related
      financial crimes.
        (3) Specific initiatives. - Any head of a department, bureau,
      or law enforcement agency, including any State or local
      prosecutor, involved in the detection, prevention, and
      suppression of money laundering and related financial crimes and
      any State or local official or prosecutor may submit - 
          (A) a written request for the designation of any area as a
        high-risk money laundering and related financial crimes area;
        or
          (B) a written request for funding under section 5351 for a
        specific prevention or enforcement initiative, or to determine
        the extent of financial criminal activity, in an area.

      (d) Factors. - In considering the designation of any area as a
    high-risk money laundering and related financial crimes area, the
    Secretary shall, to the extent appropriate and in consultation with
    the Attorney General, take into account the following factors:
        (1) The population of the area.
        (2) The number of bank and nonbank financial institution
      transactions which originate in such area or involve institutions
      located in such area.
        (3) The number of stock or commodities transactions which
      originate in such area or involve institutions located in such
      area.
        (4) Whether the area is a key transportation hub with any
      international ports or airports or an extensive highway system.
        (5) Whether the area is an international center for banking or
      commerce.
        (6) The extent to which financial crimes and financial crime-
      related activities in such area are having a harmful impact in
      other areas of the country.
        (7) The number or nature of requests for information or
      analytical assistance which - 
          (A) are made to the analytical component of the Department of
        the Treasury; and
          (B) originate from law enforcement or regulatory authorities
        located in such area or involve institutions or businesses
        located in such area or residents of such area.

        (8) The volume or nature of suspicious activity reports
      originating in the area.
        (9) The volume or nature of currency transaction reports or
      reports of cross-border movements of currency or monetary
      instruments originating in, or transported through, the area.
        (10) Whether, and how often, the area has been the subject of a
      geographical targeting order.
        (11) Observed changes in trends and patterns of money
      laundering activity.
        (12) Unusual patterns, anomalies, growth, or other changes in
      the volume or nature of core economic statistics or indicators.
        (13) Statistics or indicators of unusual or unexplained volumes
      of cash transactions.
        (14) Unusual patterns, anomalies, or changes in the volume or
      nature of transactions conducted through financial institutions
      operating within or outside the United States.
        (15) The extent to which State and local governments and State
      and local law enforcement agencies have committed resources to
      respond to the financial crime problem in the area and the degree
      to which the commitment of such resources reflects a
      determination by such government and agencies to address the
      problem aggressively.
        (16) The extent to which a significant increase in the
      allocation of Federal resources to combat financial crimes in
      such area is necessary to provide an adequate State and local
      response to financial crimes and financial crime-related
      activities in such area.